Organoids are self-assembled 3D stem cell-derived structures that recapitulate the physiology and microanatomy of their original organs. This technology was first described by Sato et al. in 2009 and allowed for more translatable in vitro studies in epithelial cell lines than were previously possible using 2D cancer cell cultures.
After stem cell isolation, hepatic canine organoids start their life cycle as expanding spheroids, and after ~7 days, they turn into budding and differentiating organoids.
The growth of the hepatic spheroids is represented for every day of growth in this image.
Examples of isolated canine organoid lines that achieved a budding stage of development.
Rodents are the most commonly utilized animal model for biomedical and translational research. They are exceptionally useful for investigating basic molecular pathogenesis of the diseases, although their clinical relevance for chronic multifactorial diseases has recently been questioned.
The canine model exhibits several advantages in comparison to rodents. Dogs and humans share similarities in metabolomics and intestinal microbiome that developed due to consumption of human diet throughout various periods of their domestication. Similarities between canine and human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology is another of the examples.
Additionally, dogs often share similar environments and lifestyles with their owners. The longer lifespan of dogs in comparison to rodents allows for the natural development of numerous chronic conditions. Inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome are examples of multifactorial chronic diseases that share important similarities between humans and dogs. Canine preclinical trials that involve dogs with naturally occurring diseases can generate more reliable data than those gained from rodent models.
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Standardization of canine organoid technology is a crucial step for further application to veterinary medicine. Organoids can help with personalized medicinal approach.
Diagnostical value of such a model can be appreciated on an example of an oncological patient. While performing necessary diagnostical biopsies, part of the sample can be diverted to a laboratory for establishment of personalized canine organoid line. This organoid culture can be used for testing of prospective chemotherapeutics individualized for this patient.
Furthermore, organoid technology promises advances even in curative therapy. With further research, we might be able to successfully biopsy tissue from a cirrhotic patient, create an individualized line of hepatic organoids, expand them and then implant hepatocytes back in the patient.
The organoid technology can be used in many basic and biomedical research areas, spanning from developmental biology, pathophysiology, drug discovery and testing, toxicology to the study of infectious diseases and regenerative medicine.
Translational and reverse translational research are both areas where canine organoids are applicable.
Canine adult stem-cell-derived organoid cultures are also aunique biomedical model that can help achieve the goals of the One Health Initiative